Nouns & Pronouns: English Language Notes for Bank and Other Competitive Exams (Download PDF)

प्रिय उम्मीदवारों, 


स्टडी नोट्स आपकी एक प्रभावी रणनीति का हिस्सा हैं जो आपको एक विषय के बारे में सीखने में सहायता करता है. आपका दिमाग तैयारी के दौरान विज़ुअलाइज़ किए गए कीवर्ड और मेमोरी मैप्स के रूप में यादृच्छिक विवरणों का डेटा एकत्र करता है. मुख्य वाक्यांशों और खोजशब्दों को जोड़ना, स्मृति मानचित्र बनाना और महत्वपूर्ण तथ्यों को हाइलाइट करना सीखने की प्रक्रिया को गति में मदद करता है.  अध्ययन नोट न केवल आपको प्रभावी ढंग से सीखने में मदद करते हैं बल्कि अंतिम मिनट के संशोधन के दौरान महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाते हैं.

Nouns & Pronouns

Definition:

Noun: These are the words which are the names of some particular things or collection of things such as living organisms (including humans), objects, places, actions, qualities, etc.

Ex – Raghav is the new Chairman of the National Bank.    (Underlined words represent nouns)

Pronoun: These are the words which are used in place of nouns (to refer to a noun) in a sentence, when a particular noun has already been mentioned or is about to be mentioned.

Ex – Raghav is the new Chairman of the National Bank. He is most suited for the job. (Underlined word represent pronoun); Here ‘he’ refers to ‘Raghav’.


Some basic rules/points to remember:

Nouns -

> Following common nouns are ALWAYS in plural form and do not have singular forms: 

Scissors; trousers; pants; shorts; spectacles; goggles; binoculars; sunglasses; amends; archives; congratulations; fireworks; outskirts; Shambles; Braces; Embers; Athletics; Belongings; Proceedings; Surroundings; Tongs; Vegetables; Valuables; etc

> Following nouns are Singular in form but Plural in meaning, i.e. they look to be singular but are plural, and hence take plural verb:  

Cattle; Cavalry; Infantry; Poultry; Police; People; Children; Peasantry; Gentry, etc. 

> Collective nouns are ALWAYS singular:
Example- 
 A herd of cows is grazing the field.
 The committee took the decision unanimously.

> The Following nouns are same in Singular as well as Plural forms: 

Sheep; Deer; Series; Species; Fish; Crew; Aircraft; Counsel; Team; Jury, etc.

> The following are uncountable nouns and hence will take singular verb with them (A/An/many/few/number of and plural forms are NEVER used with these) – 

Poetry; furniture; advice; information; baggage; stationery; business; crockery; News; Percentage; Pottery; Work(literary work); Cost; Equipment; Postage; Hair; Scenery; Dirt; Dust; Fuel; Traffic; Music; Evidence; Wastage; Jewellery; Electricity; Money; Mischief; Luggage; Knowledge; Crockery; etc.

Example
I have some equipments that I needed for the project. (Incorrect)
I have some equipment that I needed for the project. (Correct) 

> Plural form is used after one of the; each of the; either of the; neither of the; some of the; many of the, etc.

Pronouns
·       > ONLY subjective pronouns - He, She, It, You, They; We and I are used in place of the subject in a sentence. Usage of objective pronouns like myself, himself, me, him, her, them etc as the subject is grammatically incorrect.

For example –
Hello, Myself Nitesh Kaushal.  (Incorrect)
Hello, I am Nitesh Kaushal. (Correct) 

> Reflexive Pronouns Myself, himself, herself, itself, yourself, Yourselves, themselves; ourselves.

·        > Usage of Reflexive pronouns – A reflexive pronoun is used ONLY when the object and the subject of a sentence are the same thing.

For example:
You (sub.) can talk to Neha (obj.) or myself (obj.).  (Incorrect)
You can talk to Neha or me.  (Correct)

Rohit saw me in the mirror. (Correct) Here, ‘Rohit’ and ‘me’ are different people. ‘Me’ refers to the speaker.
Rohit saw himself in the mirror. (Correct) Here, ‘Rohit’ and ‘himself’ refer to the same person.

Payal made herself fruit juice.  (Correct – because the subject and object are same)
Payal made myself fruit juice. (Incorrect – because the subject and object are different persons, hence reflexive pronoun can’t be used)
Hence, --> Payal made me fruit juice. (Correct

·      > Possessive Pronouns These reflect possession of something by some. These include: My, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, their, theirs, its, our, ours
 UsageThis is my pen. OR This pen is mine.  (Both Correct)

·       > If a pronoun is used before a gerund (V1+ing), then it HAS TO BE a possessive pronoun.

For example:
Sakshi said, she did not have any problem with him using her laptop. (Incorrect)
Sakshi said she did not have any problem with his using her laptop.  (Correct)

·       > Usage of relative pronouns: -
Relative Pronoun Used for Used as
Who People Subject
Which Things/animals Subject/Object
Whom People Object
Whose People/Things In place of possessive pronouns; subject as well as object.
That People/Things Subject/Object


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