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English-Vinglish


अंग्रेजी आपके मन को व्याकरण और शब्दावली में इसके नियमों और अपवाद से टकराती है। यह विद्यार्थियों के लिए बहुत बड़ा विषय है, जिनके पास अंग्रेजी में आत्मविश्वास की कमी है। इसलिए, छोटे भ्रामक शब्दों और नियमों के साथ आपकी सहायता करने के लिए, Adda247 आपके इस पोस्ट के साथ आपके सभी डाउट को दूर करने के लिए एक नया ट्रेंड शुरू कर रहा है।

आइए, अभ्यर्थियों द्वारा आमतौर पर की जाने वाली गलतियों से बचने के लिए सर्वनामों और छोटी-छोटी ट्रिक्स के बारे में जानें, सर्वनाम संज्ञाओं के उपश्रेणीकरण (Pronouns are the subcategorization of nouns) हैं। जब एक वाक्य में विशेष संज्ञा की पुनरावृत्ति की बात आती है, तो संज्ञा हमेशा सबसे उपयुक्त नहीं होती है। अवलोकन को सरल बनाने और वाक्य को सार्थक रखने के लिए हम सर्वनाम का उपयोग करते हैं।

उदाहरण के लिए, यदि अप अपनी बहन Ashima के बारे में कोई बात बता रहे हैं, तो आप बार-बार “Ashima”  का नाम दोहराएंगे.  जैसा कि यहाँ दिया जा रहा है-
  • Ashima has always loved painting. Ashima announced that Ashima wants to go to art school.
  • You could try to mix it up by sometimes referring to Ashima as “my sister,” but then it will reflect that you’re referring to two different people.

  • Ashima has always loved painting. My sister announced that Ashima wants to go to art school.
  • Instead, you can use the pronouns she and her to refer to Ashima.

  • Ashima has always loved painting. She announced that she wants to go to art school.
Let's have look at the types of the pronoun with an example to get an idea of what are the topics we will be learning tricks and tips about.
आइए एक उदाहरण के साथ सर्वनाम के प्रकारों को देखें, जिससे हम अंदाजा लगा सकें कि हम जिन टॉपिक्स के बारे में सीख रहे हैं , उनके ट्रिक्स और टिप्स क्या हैं -

Personal pronouns: ( he, they, I, me, it, we)
e.g. I bought some batteries, but they weren't included.

Demonstrative pronouns: demonstrate or indicate ( this, these)
e.g. This is the one I left in the car.

Interrogative pronouns: used in questions ( which, who)
e.g.  Who told you to do that?

Indefinite pronouns: for non-specific things (none, several, both)
e.g.  Somebody must have seen the driver leave.

Possessive pronouns: to show possession ( his, your)
e.g. Have you seen her book?

Reciprocal pronouns: used for actions or feelings that are reciprocated. ( each other, one another)
e.g. They like one another.

Relative pronouns: to add more information to a sentence. ( which, where)
e.g. The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO.

Reflexive pronouns:  refers to another noun or pronoun in the sentence  ( itself, himself)
e.g. Are you talking to yourself?

Intensive pronouns: refers back to another noun or pronoun in the sentence to emphasize it (itself, himself )
e.g., Cat opened the door itself.

नियम-1

(a) If all three persons or two out of three persons [i.e., first person(1), second person(2) and third person(3)] or two out of three persons are coming in a single sentence, then the order of pronouns that is to be followed is '231'.
For example:

  • You, he and I did well in the examination. (231)
  • He and I are going on the trek next month (31)
  • You and he are going through a rough patch. (23)

(b) If all three persons or two out of the three persons are used in a single sentence, which is negative in sense, then the order of pronouns that must be followed is '123'.
 For Example:

  • I, You and he are guilty of the crime and will be punished.

(c) The order that is to be followed while using plural pronouns (They, we, you) is '123'.
 For example:

  • We, you and they will be awarded for all the good work we have done.
नियम-2

Possessive Adjectives- my, our, your, her, his, its, their
1. Use of possessive adjectives-

a) When two subjects are joined by-  As well as, along with, together with, with, in addition to, like, unlike, and not, rather than, except, no less than, nothing but, more than one.

The possessive case of the pronoun( possessive adjective) is used in accordance with the first subject.

Structure- Subject(Noun)+ (As well as, along with, together with, with, in addition to, like, unlike, and not, rather than, except, no less than, nothing but, more than one)+ Noun possessive adjective

eg1- Seema as well as her children has returned to their home- Seema as well as her children has returned to her homes
For example - My sister along with her friends is doing her jobs at Delhi- (correct)-

b) When two subjects are joined by-either-or, neither-nor, not only but also, none-but.

Structure- Subject(Noun)+ either-or, neither-nor, not only but also, none-but+ Noun+ possessive adjective according to nearest subject where the above words used.

For example - Neither the teacher nor- the students were playing in their proper uniform- (correct)- here students are the nearest subject and possessive adjective according to them.

c) Each, every, neither, either, anyone, many a, more than one(possessive adjective) are used as the subject, the possessive case should be third person singular. 

For example - Neither of the two friends has got their money back from the company- Neither of the friends has got his money back from the company.
For example - Each one of us is doing our duty properly- Each one of us is doing his duty properly.
For example - Every one should do one's duty- use his in place of one's

d) When one is used as a subject, the possessive case of the pronoun should be according to one i.e. one's.

For example - One should do his duty sincerely- here one's in place of his

नियम-3

a) Words like let, like, between and but, except and all prepositions are followed by an objective case 
Leaning- A preposition always comes before the noun
Subject+ HV+MV+ Preposition+ Objective case of pronoun.
For example - He looked at me

नियम-4
In the case of comparison between two subjects then the pronoun used in the subjective case.
For example -

  1. He is as fast as me( wrong)
  2. He is as fast as I (correct)
  3. she is better than him(wrong)
  4. she is better than he (correct)

नियम-5
The use of the 'same' as a pronoun is wrong.
For example
(a) I shall give you a book and the same is very useful. (correction: Replace 'same' by 'it')

That's all for today's blog. We will again present you with more rules and examples. All the best.